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Java is a popular programming language used in app development, desktop computing, and gaming. It was created by James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton of Sun Microsystems, later acquired by Oracle. When Java was introduced in 1995, it was marketed for smart TVs; ironically, the technology was too advanced for cable TV at the time. Java soon became an industry standard for internet programming due to its ability to run on any platform.
According to the TIOBE programming language popularity index, Java has consistently ranked as a top 10 programming language from mid-2015 to 2021. In fact, as of September 2021, Java is the #1 most popular programming language. This could be why Java remains the primary language used on the AP Computer Science exam.
Python is a growing programming language that is typically used in automation, data analysis, and web development. It was created in the Netherlands during the late 1980s by Guido van Rossum. It first appeared February 20th 1991 as Python 0.9.0., but now, in 2021, Python is in version 3.0.
Since 2003, Python has consistently ranked in the top ten programming languages. As of September 2021, it was the second most popular programming language behind Java. It also won programming language of the year (for highest rise in ratings in a single year) in 2007, 2010, 2018 & 2020, the only language to win four times.